The Commercial Press was first set up in Shanghai in 1897 as a printer. Its founders, Xia Ruifang, Bao Xianen, Bao Xianchang, Bao Xianheng, Gao Fengchi, etc., studied English typesetting after graduation from missionary school. With their knowledge in the field, they set up their own small shop, printing books, ledgers, receipts and other paper products for commercial use, and, in the style of the Huamei Press. Later, no expense was spared to recruit technicians and engineers, organize study tours abroad and invent new machinery, all of which helped bring about the emergence of modern printing in China. In 1902, Zhang Yuanji, an outstanding Chinese scholar of the time, joined the founders of the press. With the self-appointed mission of promoting education, he set up an editorial and translation department, thus launching The Commercial Press's publishing business. By 1931, over 8,000 titles had been published, including modern textbooks, new publications introducing Western knowledge, several Chinese-foreign language bilingual dictionaries, ancient Chinese texts and various magazines.